Under American Rule, World War II and Pre-EDSA Revolution

During this time, Spanish influence was already heavily integrated in the Filipino way of life. The Spaniards reliquished rule on 13 August 1898 and, eventually, literary language was also changed to English.

Widespread education and total adaption of the American culture gave way to more nationalistic ideals. Slowly, the Filipinos were allowed more political freedom. The Tydings-MacDuffie Law introduced a commonwealth government that preceded the Philippines’ much yearned-for independence.

The 1973 Constitution was followed by the acceptance of Pilipino as the primary language and English as the country’s secondary language. Spanish was taught as part of the school curriculum, however.

Write-ups, during this stage, were diverse. Emerging from the predominant religious theme of the Spanish period, compositions became more sentimental, then realistic, then experimental.

During Ferdinand Marcos’ reign as president of the Philippines, freedom of expression became painfully suppressed. Thus, political writing went underground.


  • Ang Literatura ng Pilipinas, “The Literature of the Philippines.” CHED Technical Panel, Manila: De La Salle University Press, Inc., 1997.
  • Baltazar, Silverio, et. al. Philippine Literature: Past and Ptesent. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc., 1981.
  • Bascara, Linda, et. al. “Philippine Literature.” Manila: Rex Book Store, 1999.
  • del Castillo, Teofilo T. and Buenaventura S. Medina, Jr. Philippine Literature from Ancient Times to Present. Quezon City: Philippine Graphic Arts, Inc., 1974.
  • Tomeldan, Yolanda, et. al. “Prism: An Introduction to Literature.” UP Printing Press, 1985.
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